Chemopreventive and hepatoprotective properties of Garcinia kola seeds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Osheke Shekins Okere, Moses Dele Adams, Danjuma Kassim Abdullahi
The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective properties of different doses of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seeds on alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. Thirty six male Wistar rats weighing 140.25±3.56 g were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) comprising six animals each. Group A, served as the normal control (no treatment). Animals in groups B, which served as the diabetic control, were induced with diabetes by diabetogenic dose of alloxan (200 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. Animals in groups C-F which were induced with diabetes were also administered 1 ml of Glibenclamide (reference antidiabetic drug), 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seeds respectively. Treatment with the extract lasted for 14 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, proteins, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, starch, steroids and triterpenoids. Administration of the extract at 120 mg/kg body weight cleared the glucose in urine by 75% on day 14. The extract at 120 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of blood glucose and serum cholesterol from 458.40±13.94 mg/dL to 117.12±10.55 mg/dL (90%) and 208.64±1.35 mmol/L to 162.29±1.00 mmol/L (30%) respectively on day 14. Administration of the extract at 120 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05) decreased serum bilirubin concentration from 30.73±0.38 µg/100ml to 20.52±0.21 µg/100ml (50%) on day 14. Furthermore, the extract at 120 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05) reduced the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the liver of the animals from 41.66±2.10 IU to 23.24±1.16 IU (45%) and 77.53±0.55 IU to 25.73±1.16 IU (35%) on day 14. Of all doses investigated, only the 120 mg/kg body weight of Garcinia kola seeds produced the most significant effect in all biochemical parameters analyzed. This dosage is found to possess hypoglycaemic potentials and thus can be recommended for use in the treatment of diabetes as well as in control of some of the metabolic disorders of liver normally associated with diabetes.