Effect of dietary high protein frog meal supplementation on the anti-hypercholesterolemic influenze, growth performance, feed conversion and blood serum chemistry in tilapia, Oreochromis aureus
Lokman Shamsudin, Syarifah AB Rashid, Azman Nirmal Abdullah, Wan Zahari Mohamed, ABD Rahman Aziz, Mohd Haaziq Saari, Hafis Harres Lokman
The frog high protein meal supplementation was employed to ascertain its anti-hyper-cholesterolemic effect and growth performance on the local farmed pond tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. Forty healthy tilapia (0.11±0.02 kg) were randomly allotted into four groups fed with different treatments for 40 days experimental feed trials, viz. one group fed standard diet (SM control group), one group fed high cholesterol diet (CM) and two groups fed with different diets (FM, 2FM groups) containing variable strength of frog high protein meal supplement. The dosage for the two diet groups viz. FM group was fed frog protein meal strength 1g/1kg BW/d while 2FM group was fed 2g/1kg BW/d. Tilapia fed frog protein meal had elevated significantly (P<0.5) HDL levels by 8.4% (0.71±0.13 mmol.L-1) of its initial value (0.65±0.26 mmol.L-1 at day 0); while lowered the total cholesterol by 37.5% (1.90±0.21 mmol.L-1) of its initial value (3.04±0.15 mmol.L-1 at day 0) on day 40 respectively during the study period. In addition, the blood TG and LDL are lowered by 17.9% (initial value of 0.67±0.05 mmol.L-1 at day 0) and 9.5% (initial value of 0.73±0.03 mmol.L-1) for the 2FM group respectively. This reflects the ability of the high protein frog meal supplement to function as an anti-hypercholesterolemic effect on the treated tilapia fed indigenous high protein meal. The liver-kidney markers and related biochemical enzyme indicators in the treated and untreated tilapia, viz. GGT and ALT appeared to remain stable; however, the blood BUN, creatinine and urea increased by 31.1%, 6.2% and 21.2% of their initial levels all the way throughout the experimental period. Moreover, supplementation in the tilapia had also elevated significantly (P<0.5) the protein levels by 13.6% and calcium by 4.2% of their initial levels on day 40 respectively. Tilapia fed frog meal gave better performance than those fed only with the standard commercial and the high cholesterol meals. There was insignificant differences between all groups in terms of their average final weights (p>0.05). Insignificant differences were observed in specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and weight gain. However, there were significant differences in terms of feed conversion rates between groups (p<0.05) and it was the highest in group 2FM (1.39±0.13) fed with frog mealand the lowest in group CM (1.98±0.10) fed high cholesterol diet. It has been shown that the best percentage specific growth rate (1.51±0.12%) and live weight gain (6.38±0.55 g) were recorded in 2FM group.