Chickpea is a major source of human and animal food and the world’s third most important pulse crop after beans and peas. Chickpea cultivation in India has declined considerably due to regular occurrence of root-knot and the resulting wilt disease complex. Annual yield losses to chickpea from the wilt vary from 10-15%. The disease under specific conditions may cause much greater losses or may destroy the entire crop in a field. Root-knot nematodes have been reported to reduce the yield of chickpea by 9-40%. The concomitant situation involving Meloidogyne sp. and Fusarium sp. leading to the development of wilt disease complex is, however, more damaging. The wilt complex is one of the major constraints in the production of chickpea in India, and many growers have given up cultivation of this pulse because of the disease.