The phytochemical and antimicrobial study of the methanolic extract of bark of bael [Aegle marmelos (L.)] was carried out in the present investigation. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroid, reducing sugars, oils and fats, gums, volatile oil, flavonoids, proteins, amino acids, cysteine, anthraquinone glycoside, tannins and phenolic compounds. Non reducing polysaccharide and saponin glycoside were absent and solubility test confirmed insolubility in 90% ethanol and water due to presence of oils. Methanolic extracts (95%) were used for antimicrobial and phytochemical studies. Four test organisms used for antimicrobial studies were viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp. and Pseudomonas auriginosa. The experiment was performed by two methods viz. Disc-diffusion method and Cup-plate method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of methanolic extract was approximately 256 µg/ ml and it is evident that bael has antimicrobial activity and the mode of action may be blockage of protein synthesis either at transcription or translational level and or peptidoglycan synthesis at membrane level. The antibacterial property of the bark extract may be due to presence of marmine (immature bark) and fagarine (mature bark) also these compounds have antiulcer and abortifacient activities respectively. The results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of microbial diseases.
Sumita Nag, Rupsanatan Mandal, Debabrata Ghosh Dastidar. A Study on Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Extract from Barks of Aegle marmelos (L.). European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, Volume 3, Issue 5, 2015, Pages 28-32